Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies, also called anti-tTG or ATA, are found predominantly in patients with celiac disease, but they are also present in several other conditions, including, diabetes type 1, or inflammatory bowel disease. In celiac disease, anti-tTG are involved in the destruction of the villous extracellular matrix.
The body’s muscle fibres are sheathed by connective tissue called endomysium. This layer contains the enzyme tissue transglutaminase. Antibodies that bind to the tTG protein of the endomysium are called anti-endomysial antibodies (AEA). These antibodies do not cause any direct symptoms to muscles, but AEA detection by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) is useful for diagnosing celiac disease. The anti-endomysial antibody test is a histological assay for patient serum binding to esophageal tissue from primate. It has been replaced by the more convenient anti-tTG ELISA.
Anti-tTG ELISAs offer a simple alternative to conventional indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA). Their high reliability, sensitivity and specificity make these test systems an ideal tool for the screening of clinically indicated patients. Anti-tTG IgA are most frequently found. The tissue transglutaminase antibodies test of the IgA class is a sensitive and specific blood test for celiac disease but this test may be negative in children under 3 years old. The IgG class of anti-tTG may be used as an alternative in people who have a deficiency of IgA.
Tests offered by ORGENTEC Diagnostika:
Gastro-5-Line (ORG 740)
Anti-Endomysium Antibodies (AEA) (ORG 872)