Graves disease, or: Morbus Basedow, is characterised by hyperthyroidism and goiter, exophthalmos, and/or infiltrative dermopathy. In fact, it is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism.
Graves disease is caused by a autoantibodies against the thyroid receptor for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Unlike most autoantibodies, which are inhibitory, this autoantibody is stimulatory, thus causing continuous synthesis and secretion of excess T4 and T3. Like Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Graves disease sometimes occurs with other autoimmune disorders, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, vitiligo, premature graying of hair, pernicious anaemia, mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), and polyglandular deficiency syndrome.